Dashlakshan Parv is a ten day festival. It is the biggest Jain festival. All these ten days people keep fast and involve as much as possible in religious activities like Abhishek, Pooja, Swadhyay, Dhyaan etc. During these ten days the complete atmosphere of the temple changes, it seems as if we are still in that time when everyone used to care for others and the whole society was a like one big family. The temple during these days is full of activities, it also gets decorated with Rangoli and other stuff.
Now lets see how this festival got its name “Dashlakshan Parv” and why is it of ten days duration. Dashlakshan dharm means a Dharm which has ten characteristics/qualities. Celebrating these qualities and wishing and trying to adopt them completely is the objective of this festival. Each day celebrates one of the quality of the Dashlakshan Dharm and hence the duration is ten days.
Day 1 : Uttam Kshama
This day celebrates Uttam Kshama meaning Supreme Forgiveness.
पीडैं दुष्ट अनेक, बांध मार बहु विधी करै ।
धरिये छिमा विवेक, कोप ना कीजिये पीतमा ॥
उत्तम छिमा गहो रे भाई, इह भव जस पर भव सुखदाई ।
गाली सुनि मन खेद ना आनो, गुन को औगुन कहे अयानो ॥
कहि है अयानो वस्तु छीने, बांध मार बहु विधि करै ।
घरतैं निकारे तन विदारै, बैर जो ना तहा धरै ॥
जे करम पूरब किये खोटे, सहै क्यों नहिं जीयरा ।
अति क्रोध अगनि बुझाय प्रानी, साम्य-जल ले सीयरा ॥
Even if a lot of evil people hurt you and cause you several injuries, you should forgive them all and should not get angry on them. This supreme forgiveness should be achieved by everyone as it is beneficial ( Happiness giving) in this birth and future births as well. Even if some one abuses us or call our good qualities bad we shouldn’t feel sad for the above specified reason. Even if others steal our belongings or hurt us, we should not keep any enmity with them. Because we have got to bear the result of the ill deeds (Paap)/ Sin that we committed in our past. If we again get angry on such occasions then we will continue to wander in this world accumulating more karm. We should extinguish the fire of anger with the water of equanimity and control.
Day 2 : Uttam Maardav
This day celebrates Uttam Maardav meaning Supreme Tenderness/Humility.
मान महा विष रूप, करहि नीचगति जगत में ।
कोमल सुधा अनूप, सुख पावै प्रानी सदा ॥
उत्तम मार्दव गुन मन माना, मान करन को कौन ठिकाना ।
बस्यो निगोद माहिं तैं आया, दमरी रूंकन भाग बिकाया ॥
रूंकन बिकाया भाग वशतै, देव इक इन्द्री भया ।
उत्तम मुआ चान्डाल हूवा, भूप कीडों में गया ॥
जीतव्य जोवन धन गुमान, कहा करै जल-बुदबुदा ।
करि विनय बहु-गुन बडे जन की, ग्यान का पावै उदा ॥
Proud is like venom that causes us to fall. And the nectar of humility/tenderness is incomparable. A person with this quality always gain happiness. We should try to achieve Supreme tenderness because a person who is proud has no future. And what is he proud of ? Of going to the worst place in this world (Hell)? Or of getting sold in dimes (cheap price) when it was a plant ? Or of going to the “One sense state” from the Heaven. We should always be modest as even a king with proud becomes aं small insect. All this money, property, youth etc are like a bubble of water, which are temporary and can burst anytime. If we respect our elders and the people who are knowledgeable, we will also be able to gain the true knowledge.
Day 3 : Uttam Aarjav
This day celebrates Uttam Aarjav meaning Supreme Simplicity.
कपट ना कीजे कोय, चोरन के पुर ना बसैं ।
सरल सुभावी होय, ताके घर बहु सम्पदा ॥
उत्तम आर्जव रीति बखानी, रन्चक दगा बहुत दुखदानी ।
मन में हो सो वचन उचरिये, वचन होय सो तन सो करिये ॥
करिये सरल तिंहु जोग अपने, देख निरमल आरसी ।
मुख करे जैसा लखे तैसा, कपट प्रीति अन्गारसी ॥
नहीं लहे लछमी अधिक छल करि, करम बन्ध विशेषता ।
भय त्यागि दूध बिलाव पीवै, आपदा नहीं देखता ॥
We should not be wicked and also we shouldn’t live with the wicked people. We should be simple minded and those who are simple get all the worldly facilities by themselves (Though they do not wish for it !). Simplicity is said to be the greatest virtue and cheating/fraud causes a lot of pain and problems. We should speak what we have in our heart and we should do what we say. We should be simple in all our activities and shouldn’t be skew. We shouldnt take wrong way of cheating to earn more money, which results in a lot of Karma getting accumulated. The poet gives an example of ideal condition where everyone will be simple is when a cat can drink milk freely without fearing any attack.
The moral is we should be simple and straight forward which is the key to happiness.
Day 4 : Uttam Shauch
This day celebrates Uttam Shauch meaning Supreme Contenment/Purity
धरि हिरदै सन्तोष, करहु तपस्या देह सों ।
शौच सदा निर्दोष, धरम बढो संसार में ॥
उत्तम शौच सर्व जग जाना, लोभ पाप को बाप बखाना ।
आशा-पास महा दुखदानी, सुख पावै सन्तोषी प्रानी ॥
प्रानी सदा शुचि शील जप तप, ग्यान ध्यान प्रभावतैं ।
नित गंग जमुन समुद्र न्हाये, अशुचि दोष सुभाव्तैं ।।
ऊपर अमल मल भर्यो भीतर, कौन विधि घट शुचि कहै ।
बहु देह मैली सुगुन थैली, शौच गुन साधू लहै ॥
We should be content in our heart and should work hard from our bodies. Contentment is always pure and its a great Dharma in this world. Whereas contentment is always supreme, on the other hand greed is called the originator of all evils. Greed/Desire are very pain/sorrow causing whereas a content person always gains happiness. Just as body’s dirt can be cleaned from the water, the dirt of our soul can be cleaned by being content, well charactered, hard working and by true knowledge and concentration. How can we call a person clean who is though clean from outside but is all dirty from inside. On the contrary a Sage though being dirty from outside is all pure because of his bunch of good qualities that everyone strives for. Such a Sage has supreme purity. We should all try to be as content as possible as there is no end of desires.
Day 5 : Uttam Satya
This day celebrates Uttam Satya meaning SupremeTruthfulness
कठिन वचन मति बोल, पर-निन्दा अरु झूठ तज ।
सांच जवाहर खोल, सतवादी जग में सुखी ॥
उत्तम सत्य बरत पा लीजे, पर-विश्वासघात नहीं कीजे ।
सांचे झूठे मानुष देखो, आपन पूत स्वपास न पेखो ॥
पेखो तिहायत पुरुष सांचे, को दरब सब दीजिये ।
मुनिराज-श्रावक की प्रतिष्ठा, सांच गुन लख लीजिये ॥
ऊंचे सिन्हासन बैठि वसु न्रुप, धरम का भूपति भया ।
वच झूठ सेति नरक पहुंचा, सुरग में नारद गया ॥
We should not speak harsh words, we should also completely refrain from criticism and lie. We should always speak the truth, a true person always remains happy. We should try to achieve supreme truthfulness, and should not deceive anyone. Today all kind of people exist, even our own son can betray us. Hence we should always help those who are truthful. A Sage or a Shraavak can be checked by the quality of truthfulness. By lying even a King can go to bad state (Hell etc), and even a poor person can get very good state (Heaven etc) by being truthful.
We should try to be completely truthful and should never lie. We should also not hurt others from our words.
Day 6 : Uttam Sanyam
This day celebrates Uttam Sanyam meaning Supreme Self-control
काय छहों प्रतिपाल, पंचेंद्री मन वश करो ।
सन्जम रतन संभाल, विषय चोर बहु फ़िरत हैं ॥
उत्तम सन्जम गहु मन मेरे, भव-भव के भांजै अघ तेरे ।
सुरग-नरक-पशुगति में नाहीं, आलस-हरन करन-सुख ठाहीं ॥
ठाहीं प्रुथी जल आग मारूत, रुख त्रस करुना धरो ।
सपरसन रसना घ्रान नैना, कान मन सब वश करो ॥
जिस बिना नहि जिनराज सीझे, तु रुल्यो जग-कीच में ।
इक घरी मत विसरो करो नित, आव जम-मुख बीच में ॥
We should control both five senses and the Mann (heart). We should safeguard the gem of self-control as the burglars in the form of attractive subjects are always alert and roaming. By keeping supreme self-control we can get rid of the pains of many births. This supreme self-control can only be observed in this Human form and not any other (Heaven, Hell, Animals) form. It causes us to lose our laziness and be happy. We should be careful towards all the living beings be it a human being or a small creature (Found in fire, water, earth and air). We should have control on all our senses- touch, taste, nose, eyes and ears. Without this we have been wandering from lot of time in this world. Now we shouldn’t waste any more time and start controlling our senses as much as possible with the ultimate aim of Supreme Self-contorl.
Day 7: Uttam Tap
This day celebrates Uttam Tap meaning Supreme Austerity.
तप चाहें सुरराय, करम-शिखर को वज्र है ।
द्वादशविधि सुखदाय, क्यों न करै निज सकति सम ॥
उत्तम तप सबमाहिं बखाना, करम शैल को वज्र-समाना ।
बस्यो अनादि-निगोद मन्झारा, भू-विकलत्रय-पशु-तन धारा ।
धारा मनुज तन महादुर्लभ, सुकुल आयु निरोगता ।
श्रीजैनवानी तत्वग्यानी, भई विषय-पयोगता ।।
अति महादुर्लभ त्याग विषय, कषाय जो तप आदरैं ।
नर-भव अनूपम कनक घर पर मणिमयी कलसा धरैं ॥
Even the king of Devtaas wish to achieve supreme austerity as it is like a Vajraa (a weapon) to break the mountain of the Karma. This supreme Austerity has twelve types. And since this Austerity brings uncomparable happiness to life then why shouldn’t we all practise and achieve this supreme austerity.
In all the works Tap(Austerity) has been called the best as it acts like a weapon which could demolish even the mountain of Karma.
In the beginning we were in the Nigoda and faced lot of pains, somehow we got through it and took birth in 2,3,4 sensed body and also among 5 sensed animals. After going thorugh all the pains and suffering in all these bodies by great luck we have got birth in the human body which is extremely rare. We have also got good society and long life as well as good health. Apart from all these we have found the extremely important thing in form of Jinvaani (Holy books) and also the capability to understand them. We also by fortune have the interest to understand the reality.
If we could leave all the raag, vishay and kashaay and achieve the supreme austerity, it would be like putting a crown of diamond over the golden house !!
Day 8: Uttam Tyaag
This day celebrates Uttam Tyaag meaning Supreme Renunciation
दान चार परकार, चार सन्घ को दीजिए ।
धन बिजुली उनहार, नर-भव लाहो लीजिए ॥
उत्तम त्याग कह्यो जग सारा, औषध शास्त्र अभय आहारा ।
निहचै राग-द्वेष निरवारै, ग्याता दोनों दान संभारै ॥
दोनों सम्भारै कूप-जलसम, दरब घर में परिनया ।
निज हाथ दीजे साथ लीजे, खाय खोया बह गया ॥
धनि साधु शास्त्र अभय-दिवैया, त्याग राग विरोध को ।
बिन दान श्रावक साधु दोनों, लहैं नाहीं बोध को ॥
Renunciation which is of four kinds should be given to the four Sanghs as this wealth is as temporary as lightening and we must utilize our human birth . Renunciation is accepted as supreme by the whole world. Donation is of four kind Medicine, Knowledge, Life and Food. In reality the actual daan(donation) is giving up ones raag and dwesh (affection and hatred), a wise person performs both kind of daan. Just the way the water in the well keeps on getting refilled on being emptied, similarly the more daan you do the more wealth comes as result of your good deed. Whatever daan you do is the actual wealth that goes with you after your life, the remaining that you spent on your luxuries goes waste.
Those sages are great who do the knowledge and life renunciation and with they also leave their Raag and dwesh. Without the renunciation neither the Shraavak nor the Sage achieve the supreme knowledge.
Day 9: Uttam Aakinchanya
This day celebrates Uttam Aakinchanya meaning Supreme Non Attachment
परिग्रह चौबिस भेद, त्याग करैं मुनिराज जी ।
तिसना भाव उछेद, घटती जान घटाइए ॥
उत्तम आकिंचन गुण जानो, परिग्रह चिंता दुख ही मानो ।
फ़ांस तनक-सी तन में सालै, चाह लंगोटी की दुख भालै ॥
भालै न समता सुख कभी नर, बिना मुनि-मुद्रा धरैं ।
धनि नगन पर तन नगन ठाडे, सुर-असुर पायनि परैं ॥
घरमाहिं तिसना जो घटावै, रुचि नहीं संसार सौं ।
बहु धन बुरा हू भला कहिये, लीन पर-उपगार सौं ॥
Parigraha (Belongings/ attachments) are of 24 types. Jain Sage leaves all those Parigraha. We all should try to minimize our belonging and attachments as much as possible. Aakinchaya(Non attachment) is supreme and the worry of our belongings and attachment is a big pain. Just a like a small thorn can be so painful on getting pierced similarly even the worry of small undergarment is very painful. The essence of the comparison is that even a little bit of attachment/belonging is painful.
A human being never attains satisfaction until he becomes a sage and gets rid of all the attachments. Such sage is truly great who doesnt have even an iota of wealth but still even the Devtaas lie in their feet. That is because of their internal qualities and strength. A lot of accumulation of wealth is bad and the excess wealth must be utilized for the welfare of the needy.
Day 10: Uttam Brahmacharya
This day celebrates Uttam Brahmacharya meaning Supreme Chastity
शील-बाढ नौ राख, ब्रह्म-भाव अन्तर लखो ।
करि दोनों अभिलाख, करहु सफ़ल नरभव सदा ॥
उत्तम ब्रह्मचर्य मन आनौ, माता-बहिन-सुता पहिचानौ ।
सहैं वान-वरषा बहु सूरे, टिकैं न नैन-वान लखि कूरे ॥
कूरे तिया के अशुचि तन में, काम-रोगी रति करैं ।
बहु म्रुतक सडहिं मसान माहीं, काग ज्यों चोंचैं भरैं ॥
संसार में विषबेलनारी, तजि गये जोगीश्वरा ।
’द्यानत’ धरम दशपैंडि चढि कैं, शिवमहल में पग धरा ॥
Brahmcharya is achieved externally by the fence of Sheel which is of nine type and internally by meditating (By achieving Samyaktva). We must hope to accomplish complete Brahmacharya and make our human life successful. We all should attain brahmacharya and look at other women as Mother, Sister and daughter (as per their age).
Even the greatest of warriors who can face the arrows of iron in the war bravely becomes helpless in front of the arrows of the eyes of a woman. A person who doesn’t have control on his feelings and full of lust, enjoys in the body of women as the crow enjoys the dead body in the cemetery. What the poet want to convey is that lust toward the body of other sex is very bad and we must get rid of it.
This lust is like a poisonous plant that keeps on growning and covering us in its grip. All the gods got rid of it to attain the salvation. Kavivar Dyanat Raaya ji says we all must climb the ten step ladder of the dashlakshan dharm and step into the Moksha(Salvation)
I wish all of you a very happy Paryushan Parva and hope that may we all achieve complete happiness.